Richard A. Falk, Environmental Warfare and Ecocide—Facts, Appraisal and Proposals, 9(1) Revue Belge de Droit International [RBDI/Belg. Rev. Int’l L.] 1 annex at 21–24 (1973) (Belg.) (A Proposed International Convention on the Crime of Ecocide)
The Contracting Parties confirm that ecocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and punish.
In the present Convention, ecocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to disrupt or destroy, in whole or in part, a human ecosystem:
- The use of weapons of mass destruction, whether nuclear, bacteriological, chemical, or other;
- The use of chemical herbicides to defoliate and deforest natural forests for military purposes;
- The use of bombs and artillery in such quantity, density, or size as to impair the quality of soil or to enhance the prospects of diseases dangerous to human beings, animals or crops;
- The use of bulldozing equipment to destroy large tracts of forest or cropland for military purposes;
- The use of techniques designed to increase or decrease rainfall or otherwise modify weather as a weapon of war;
- The forcible removal of human beings or animals from their habitual places of habitation to expedite the pursuit of military or industrial objectives.