Uzbekistan – Articles 196 & 198

Section 4 of the Criminal Code of Uzbekistan details serious environmental offences. Articles 196 and 198 contain the greatest parallels to the crime of ecocide. Article 196 states that “Pollution or damage of land, water, or atmospheric air, resulted in mass disease incidence of people, death of animals, birds, or fish, or other grave consequences – shall be punished with fine from one hundred to two hundred minimum monthly wages or deprivation of certain right up to five years, or correctional labor up to three years.” The provision notes that the same acts which resulted in death of a person, “shall be punished with arrest from three to six months, or imprisonment up to three years and deprivation of certain right.” Article 198 provides that “Damage or destruction of crops, forest, or other plants as the result of negligent dealing with fire, resulted in large damage or other grave consequences – shall be punished with fine up to fifty minimum monthly wages, or correctional labor up to one year, or arrest up to three months. Illegal felling of timber or other plants, resulted in large damage – shall be punished with fine from fifty to seventy-five minimum monthly wages, or correctional labor from one year to two years, or arrest from three to six months, or imprisonment up to three years. Intentional damage or destruction of crops, forest, or other plants, resulted in large damage – shall be punished with fine from seventy-five to one hundred minimum monthly wages, or correctional labor from two to three years, or imprisonment up to three years.”