Steven Freeland, “Crimes Against the Environment—A Role for the International Criminal Court?”, in Droit de l’environnement dans le Pacifique Prolematiques et Perspectives Croisées [Environmental Law in the Pacific: International and Comparative Perspectives], 358 (Alberto Costi & Yves-Louis Sage eds., 2005)

Freeland broadly defines “crimes against the environment,” the breach of which could potentially trigger international criminal responsibility, as follows:

A deliberate action committed with intent to cause significant harm to the environment, including ecological, biological and natural resource systems, in order to promote a particular military, strategic, political or other aim, and which does in fact cause such damage.