Steven Freeland, Addressing the Intentional Destruction of the Environment during Warfare under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2015).

Published in 2015, this book examines the international legal regime—treaty law, customary international law and the Rome Statute—relevant to the intentional destruction of the environment during warfare. Freeland argues that such acts should be recognised as constituting an international crime, subject to more effective rules giving rise to international criminal responsibility. He also suggests a framework within the Rome Statute as to how this might be achieved, including by proposing a definition for “crimes against the environment”: “employing, within the context of and associated with an armed conflict, a method or means of warfare with intent to cause widespread, long-term or severe damage to the natural environment.”

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