Mark Allan Gray, The International Crime of Ecocide, 26 CAL. W. INT’L L.J. 215–71 (1996)

In this article, Gray asserts that states, and arguably individuals and organizations, “breach a duty of care owed to humanity in general and therefore commit an international delict” of “ecocide” when they cause or allow harm to the natural environment on a massive scale. Gray identifies ecocide “on the basis of the deliberate or negligent violation of key state and human rights and according to the following criteria: (1) serious, and extensive or lasting, ecological damage, (2) international consequences, and (3) waste.” Gray explains that with this definition, ecocide, which may be perceived by some as radical, is actually derivable from international legal principles. He argues that ecocide’s “parameters allow for expansion and refinement as environmental awareness engenders further international consensus and legal development.”