France – Article 231-3

France’s ‘Climate & Resilience Act’, passed in 2021, includes ecocide in two contexts. Firstly, as a “délit” under national law (Article 231-3), providing for up to 10 years imprisonment for those committing offences which “cause serious and lasting damage to health, flora, fauna or the quality of the air, soil or water.” Secondly, the government is obliged, under Article 296 of the new law, to report back to parliament within one year on “its action in favour of the recognition of ecocide as a crime which can be tried by international criminal courts.” The approval was passed by 44 votes to 10 in France’s lower house of parliament, and applies to “the most serious cases of environmental damage at national level”.